What is counselling Counselling Approaches CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) focuses on current problems rather than past issues. It aims to change the way clients think about these (cognitive element) and how they behave in the face of them (behavioural element). In short, it aims to help people to deal with their problems in a more positive way over a dedicated period of time. Beneficiaries will learn new techniques and then test them out. CBT has been proven as being an effective treatment for for stress-related ailments, phobias, obsessions, eating disorders and (in combination with drug treatment) major depression.